Culture® 4.0
Contextual Guide and Internet Index to Western Civilization

-- Culture 4.0 Workbook --
Document 7 of 10

Baroque (1600-1750)

(This Workbook excerpt, one of ten pages, is from the Culture 4.0 program.)

Introduction and Workbook Index
Biblical -- Greece -- Rome -- Medieval -- Renaissance
Baroque -- Classic -- Romantic -- 20th Century

Baroque Introduction Essay
Baroque Literature Essay
Baroque Art Essay
Baroque Music Essay
Baroque Religion/Philosophy Essay
Baroque Science Essay
Early Baroque (1600-1630)
Essay: The 30 Years War
Map Exploration
Middle Baroque (1630-1670)
Essay: The Dutch Republic
Essay: Oliver Cromwell and the English Civil War
Essay: The Restoration
Map Exploration
Mature Baroque (1670-1710)
Essay: The Glorious Revolution
Essay: Louis XIV
Essay: Sir Isaac Newton
Map Exploration
Late Baroque (1710-1750)
Essay: The Rococo
Map Exploration

Baroque Introduction Essay

  1. Where does the word "Baroque" come from and what does it mean?
  2. How did Rousseau define "Baroque"?
  3. Why is 1600 a useful general date for beginning the Baroque?
  4. Why is 1750 a useful general date for ending the Baroque?
  5. Which of the two styles, Apollonian or Dionysian, dominated the Baroque?
  6. Cite some traits of this style.
  7. Name some important buildings of the Baroque.
  8. What other examples in music are there of the Baroque predilection for "bigness"?
  9. What other examples in literature are there of the Baroque predilection for "bigness"?

Baroque Literature Essay

Baroque Art Essay

  1. From what style did Baroque painting and music spring?
  2. Cite some traits of the new Dionysian style.
  3. What stylistic features went into the eclectic pastiche typical of Baroque architecture?
  4. What two Italian artists began the Baroque with their dramatic paintings?
  5. Who was the greatest architect-sculptor of the Baroque?
  6. Which Baroque artist painted many brilliant ceilings?
  7. What Baroque artist loved to paint Venice?
  8. Who was the earliest French painter to win international fame?
  9. Who were the two leading Rococo painters?
  10. What two buildings enhance Vienna's reputation as the greatest Baroque capital in Europe?
  11. Who designed them?
  12. Who was the greatest Spanish Baroque artist?
  13. Who was England's greatest architect?
  14. What is his most famous building?
  15. What rhyme makes it easy to remember when the great fire of London occurred?
  16. Who built Blenheim Palace?
  17. For whom was it built?
  18. Who was the finest woodcarver of all time?
  19. What is significant about St.-Martin's-in-the-Fields in London?
  20. Who designed it?
  21. Who was the first thoroughly international artist?
  22. What traits did he combine?
  23. Which English Baroque artist gained his fame from masterful portraits?
  24. Who was the greatest Baroque artist?
  25. What did he do better than anyone before or since?
  26. Who was the Dutch (i.e., Flemish) master of soft, luminous, glowing light?
    (For more questions on Rococo art see Late Baroque Essay Worksheet: The Rococo.)

Baroque Music Essay

  1. In which two Italian cities did Baroque music have its origin?
  2. What were some contributions of Venetian Mannerism?
  3. In whose works are these seen?
  4. Where did he work?
  5. What was the "Camerata"?
  6. What did they think they discovered?
  7. Name some Baroque instrumental genres.
  8. What constituent parts are found in opera?
  9. What is an oratorio?
  10. What form was standard in the Baroque?
  11. What instruments took over as the basis of the Baroque orchestra?
  12. Who were some builders of these instruments?
  13. What is "figured bass"?
  14. What is the basic melodic unit in Baroque music?
  15. Who was the first great Baroque composer?
  16. What is the first great opera?
  17. Who was the first great German composer in history?
  18. What genre is Carissimi associated with?
  19. What is the significance of Corelli?
  20. What is a concerto grosso?
  21. Who was the likely creator of the solo concerto?
  22. Who was the first great composer for the "modern" organ?
  23. Who created the modern ballet?
  24. Who wrote the greatest English opera? What is its name?
  25. Who is famous for his 450+ concerti?
  26. Who was the greatest harpsichord virtuoso of the Baroque?
  27. Who, along with Mozart and Beethoven, is one of the three greatest composers in history?
  28. Which of his works is considered one of the greatest ever written?
  29. What other two works are in its league? Who wrote them?
  30. Who, in addition to Bach, was the other greatest Baroque composer?
  31. Name some works for which he is famous?
  32. Who created the Rococo style in music?
  33. Which monarchs did he serve?
    (For more questions on Rococo music see Late Baroque Essay Worksheet: The Rococo.)

Baroque Religion/Philosophy Essay

  1. By what two other names are the 17th and 18th centuries often called?
  2. What is empiricism?
  3. What is rationalism?
  4. What three important revolutions took place during the enlightenment? When did they begin?
  5. What is a pantheist?
  6. Who founded the Methodist Church?
  7. Who was the first British empiricist philosopher?
  8. Who saw the state as an artificial monster -- "the Leviathan?"
  9. What was Thomas Hobbes' view of democracy?
  10. Who said "Cogito, ergo sum?" What does it mean?
  11. Who said, "The heart has its reasons which reason does not know?"
  12. Who held God's will to be identical with the laws of nature??
  13. In what book did John Locke detail his empirical theory of knowledge?
  14. Who argued that we are born with the natural rights of "life, health, liberty and possessions?" In what work?
  15. Who argued that this is "the best of all possible worlds?" Who disagreed?
  16. What philosopher is known for his theory of immaterialism?
  17. Along with Montesquieu and Locke, who was the third major intellectual influence on the framers of the U.S. Constitution?
  18. Who argued for a government limited by a separation of powers?

Baroque Science Essay

  1. Who discovered the circulation of the blood?
  2. Who gave us the expression, "Knowledge is power?"
  3. Who demonstrated that the planets move in elliptical, not circular, orbits?
  4. Who invented the working telescope and saw that the Milky Way consisted of individual stars?
  5. Who was the pioneer in the use of the microscope to examine plant and animal tissues?
  6. Who was the first to propound the wave theory of light?
  7. Who was the first to inoculate children with a smallpox vaccine?
  8. Who brought the idea of inoculation back to England?
  9. Who invented the mercury thermometer?

Early Baroque (1600-1630) CultureGrid

Country/Discipline, One Key Person, Place, Work, Event

30 Years War (Early Baroque Essay)

  1. Who made the Catholic, Ferdinand, King of Bohemia?
  2. What did the Bohemians do about it?
  3. To whom did they turn for help?
  4. Who won the Habsburg/Bohemian battle?
  5. Who were the next to rebel against the Catholic Habsburgs?
  6. Who was their king and to what church did he belong?
  7. Why did a Catholic French king support the Protestants in Sweden and Germany?
  8. After 30 years of turmoil who gave in?
  9. What did he sign?
  10. What did it settle?
  11. After 1648 what causes of war supplanted religious reasons?

Early Baroque Map Exploration

Middle Baroque (1630-1670) CultureGrid

Country/Discipline, One Key Person, Place, Work, Event

The Dutch Republic (Middle Baroque Essay)

  1. Which Habsburg emperor took over the rule of the Netherlands?
  2. Cite two reasons the Dutch resented this foreign rule and decided to revolt.
  3. Who led the revolt?
  4. When did the Dutch Revolt end?
  5. What other war ended the same year?
  6. How were the Netherlands partitioned?
  7. What factors led to the Dutch "economic miracle"?
  8. What artists benefitted from the patronage arising from this new wealth?

Oliver Cromwell and the English Civil War (Middle Baroque Essay)

  1. What action of Charles I precipitated the civil war?
  2. What two factions did Parliament split into?
  3. Who supported Charles I?
  4. Who supported Cromwell?
  5. What happened to Charles I?
  6. What other actions did the victors take?
  7. What ruinous acts did Cromwell's iconoclastic puritan supporters engage in?
  8. What happened to Oliver Cromwell's body?
  9. Who succeeded Oliver Cromwell? What was his nickname?
  10. What did Parliament decide to do next?

The Restoration (Middle Baroque Essay)

  1. Whom did Parliament invite back to the throne?
  2. Why?
  3. What was the Cromwell period known as?
  4. Were did Charles II spend his exile?
  5. Who was his favorite mistress?
  6. What happened to the arts during the Restoration?
  7. What gave rise to the English preference for "Chinoiserie"?
  8. Who succeeded Charles II?

Middle Baroque Map Exploration

Mature Baroque (1670-1710) CultureGrid

Country/Discipline, One Key Person, Place, Work, Event

The Glorious Revolution (Mature Baroque Essay)

  1. Whom did James II succeed?
  2. Where did he live in exile?
  3. How was James II different from Charles II?
  4. Who were James II's daughters?
  5. What religion were they raised in?
  6. Why did the British start rumors about James II's son? What were the rumors?
  7. Who succeeded James II as joint sovereigns?
  8. Why was the revolution called "Glorious"?
  9. To which country did James II flee?
  10. What did he do for spite?
  11. What was James II's son known as?
  12. What was his grandson known as?
  13. Who succeeded William and Mary?
  14. Who succeeded Queen Anne when she died childless?
  15. What was the name of his family (i.e. line)?
  16. What happened to Bonnie Prince Charlie?
  17. Who helped him?
  18. Who is he buried with?
  19. Where are they buried?

Louis XIV (Mature Baroque Essay)

  1. How long did Louis XIV reign?
  2. What part of government that is still with us emerged during his reign?
  3. What country did Louis XIV rule?
  4. What did Louis XIV like to spend money on?
  5. What was Louis XIV's symbol?
  6. What great building did Louis XIV have built?
  7. How long is the Hall of Mirrors?
  8. How many people played in his orchestra?
  9. Who wrote his ballets?
  10. Who wove his tapestries?
  11. Who wove his carpets?
  12. Who made his china?
  13. Who built his furniture?

Sir Isaac Newton (Mature Baroque Essay)

  1. What did Newton discover about white light?
  2. How did Newton's telescope differ from Galileo's?
  3. What mathematical technique did Newton discover?
  4. What fell on Newton's head? What universal law did it lead to?
  5. Why does Newton deserve to be ranked with the likes of Aristotle, Galileo and Darwin?

Mature Baroque Map Exploration

Late Baroque (1710-1750) CultureGrid

Country/Discipline, One Key Person, Place, Work, Event

The Rococo (Late Baroque Essay)

  1. Name some other "proto" or avant garde movements.
  2. By what other term is the Rococo style known?
  3. How do we get the word "Rococo"?
  4. What is a short definition of Rococo?
  5. Who were the two major Rococo painters in the Baroque era?
  6. Who was the leading Rococo composer in the Baroque era?
  7. What nationality were the major Rococo painters and composer?
  8. What stylistic features can be seen in the paintings of Watteau and Boucher?
  9. What stylistic features are found in the works of F. Couperin?
  10. Why is Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock a literary example of the Rococo?
  11. Name three Rococo artists and three Rococo composers of the Classic era.

Late Baroque Map Exploration


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